By E. Jensgar. Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans.
Interfacing the assay program with pre-existing laboratory data management programs m a y be necessary floxin 200mg mastercard. Finney has outlined the characteristics of an ideal assay program (117); the requirements make it clear that writing a complete package is not a trivial task buy cheap floxin 200 mg on-line. It is to the benefit of both individual laboratories and the assay community as a whole to concentrate upon the dissemination and continued improvement of several good programs rather than the continued development of many local programs buy floxin 200mg. This will probably lead to increased use of disseminated processing in laboratories, in which small special- purpose computing devices are attached to assay machinery and used strictly for assay calculations. These small machines will communicate with a hierarchy of other larger machines to pass on results to a data archive. It is possible that robust statistical techniques (67,119,120) will be incorporated into programs, with due caution (121), to facilitate the recognition and rejection of outliers. Another possibility is the use of more general curve-fitting methods such as the maximum-likelihood based method known as "extended least squares" (122), which essentially attempts to fit both a calibration curve and an imprecision profile, simultaneously and using the same data. Such a technique would very likely have to pool information from several assays, as is done at present, because there is rarely sufficient statistical information about imprecision present in a single assay run. Thus far, the most satisfactory programs have come from academic and public institutions, rather than the commercial sector. However, it is possible that future programs will make use of the experience which industry (most notably the home computer industry) has acquired in making programs attractive to use, and in making the documentation complete and easy to understand. Another important goal should be to standardize the mathematical techniques used so that quantities such as imprecision are computed identically everywhere; this would facilitate the comparison of assay methods and results. C O N C L U D I N G R E M A R K S Although the increase in speed, decrease in cost, and decrease in variability of results which come from the proper application of an automated data processing technique are well documented (114,123), perhaps the most salutory effect is that the attention of the assayist is focussed more clearly on maximally meaningful indices of assay performance (inprecision and bias) rather than statistically meaningless criteria such as calibration curve slope and location. Contrary to the objections of impracticality voiced at prior meetings of this type (and which will doubtless be raised again at this conference), the procedures outlined in this paper are not the abstract pipe dreams of mathematicians. The programs described here were developed with the close attention of working essayists and are in daily use in major medical institutions throughout the world. The major impediments to their more widespread use would seem to be social and educational rather than truly practical. Even the most sophisticated of programs can only supplement, and not supplant, the practical experience and judgment of the assayist, and occasional problems will still call for the advice of a biostatistician. The ultimate determinants of assay quality will remain the talent and motivation of the individuals involved in performing the assay: the judicious selection and critical application of a comprehensive automated data processing and quality control package will be an important reflection of this talent and motivation. Rodbard (National Institutes of Health) for sending m e copies of their software, as well as pertinent reprints. Edwards (Middlesex Hospital, London) who has taken over development of the program originated by P. Ekins expressed his preference for the term precision profile rather than imprecision profile, the concept of precision being a general one which could be expressed in terms of a wide variety of metameters. A question related to the distinction between the valid analytical range of an assay as defined by Mr. Rodgers and its working range for a chosen maximum coefficient of variation, derived from its imprecision profile. The working range derived as described from the imprecision profile was entirely arbitrary, depending on the magnitude of the coefficient of variation chosen. Ekins, for his part, preferred to retain sensitivity to denote the impreci sion of measurement at zero dose. A speaker questioned whether quality-control indices as numerous as those listed by Mr. Rodgers saw no difficulty here, provided that data-processing programs were properly designed. The information to be imparted was limited; displaying it was the task of the programmer. As a minimum, the results of each assay should be given with confidence limits, the imprecision profiles should be presented and so also should the results of tests for drift and bias. Results of additional tests for between- assay variation in these quality control indices should be presented as appropriate. The objective is to stimulate a more critical appraisal of the errors in analysis than is ever accomplished by manual data processing, and thereby to encourage improvement of assay design and technique. The hardware was chosen as appropriate for laboratories having limited finances, limited experience, modest sample throughput, difficult access to maintenance, and unreliable electrical power supply. The programs provide the obvious functions of fitting the standard curve (4-parameter logistic model with weighted least-squares fit), determining analyte concentration in unknowns, and assessing within-assay drift. Of greater note, they also analyse and display the structure of random errors in the assay by automatically determining the response-error relationship and imprecision profile from standards and unknowns and comparing these with previous assay batches using the chi-square test; flagging candidate outliers; testing the curve fit by the variance-ratio test; plotting the curve with data points and their error bars; evaluating between-assay variability using specimens from quality control pools; and attaching confidence limits to most derived quantities. An earlier version of the program package, along with calculator system and documentation, has been available in 38 laboratories in developing countries for periods ranging from one to six months. The quality control insights it provides are not yet fully comprehended in many laboratories, but understanding is growing. A summary of th is p ro ject as of la te 1981 is in p ress [1 ], and the p resent report g iv e s the sta tu s in m id-1982.
Proc Intl Conf Avian and candidiasis in birds - Data from Avian Vets purchase 200 mg floxin with mastercard, 1991 generic floxin 200mg fast delivery, pp 15-16 buy 200 mg floxin. Vet Clin rankeihiten - Schwerpunkt Tauber methods for the diagnosis and treat- diagnosis and treatment. Phila- in domestic turkeys, red-tailed bacterial and coccidial diseases of parakeets. Redmann T, Schildger B: Enilconazole ics of ampicillin given orally and in- bial Agents Annual 3. Complete reviews of all the drugs discussed in this book are available through a variety of desk references and product information forms provided by the manufacturers. The clinician is referred to these references for a review of the general pharma- cology and specific contraindications of any drug dis- 18 cussed. A drug should never be used for which the clinician is not fully aware of the indica- tions, contraindications and potential side effects. In this chapter, commonly used drugs and their asso- ciated doses are provided in table form for easy refer- ence. The information concerning the use of the drugs listed in the table should be reviewed before administering any therapeutic agent. If a drug is not discussed, either insufficient data is available to war- rant its use in birds, or it has been used but has little Branson W. Harrison The doses and material presented for each drug have been compiled from numerous reference sources, in- cluding the various chapters in this book. Some of the recommended doses are based on pharmacokinetic information, and some are based totally on observa- tion. An asterisk in the formulary table indicates that the suggested dose is based on pharmacologic data obtained in some species of birds other than poultry. Notes on any adverse drug reactions should be for- warded to the Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians to keep colleagues informed of any problems that occur with commonly used therapeutic agents. Representative manufacturers listed in the formulary are for reference purposes only. Used lethargy, edema of the eyelids and tachycardia 20 minutes after for the treatment of gout. Functions to inhibit purine catabolism, which prevents the production of uric acid. Up to 1 ml of the diluted Available as tablets (5 or 60 grain) for oral administration. May be solution of drinking water should be provided several times per effective as an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent day. A reduction in serum and urinary uric acid levels should be in some avian species. May be indicated to prevent clot formation noted within two to three days of administration. It has been found to cause gout in Red-tailed effective in some casesof acute and chronic gout. A five grain tablet Hawks, and may cause a skin rash, urticarial lesions or hepatitis. Glucocorticoid admini- Available as a lotion or for topical application on pruritic lesions or stration may falsely elevate endogenous cortisol levels. Limited activity against gram-positive or- ganic arsenic and chemotherapeutic agents) from the gastrointes- ganisms. Can be mixed with sodium to treat gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas, Klebsiella spp. Sodium sulfate can cause osmotic diarrhea when used in combination with synthetic penicillins. Can be mixed with hemicellulose to function as a bulk period to decrease the possibility of nephrotoxicity. Appears to be most effective if treat- ment is initiated in an individual bird before clinical signs occur. Should induce complete Acyclovir is preferentially absorbed by herpesvirus-infected cells molt within 2 months of administration. Tricyclic antidepressant with a sedative effect that has been results in a high therapeutic index. Appears to be treatment of poxvirus, but there is no conclusive evidence to rarely effective. May cause depression, arrhyth- The injectable product may cause severe muscle necrosis if admin- mias, tachycardia, vomiting or muscle rigidity. Acyclovir has been shown to interfere with spermatogenesis Available as an ointment for topical application. Used as a topical and is mutagenic when administered at high doses in some mam- analgesic or antipuritic (see Aloe Vera).
Birds showing compulsive grit consumption vary ducts may be associated with hypovitaminosis should be evaluated for hepatopathy purchase 200mg floxin free shipping, pancreatitis generic floxin 200mg amex, A (see Colors 8 and 13) floxin 200 mg cheap. Oral paralysis in cockatiels may be related to vita- There is a difference between grit and crushed shell. Crushed shell is almost entirely composed of limestone (calcium car- bonate) and is readily digested by acids in the pro- ventriculus. Crushed shell will provide a source of calcium, and is not effective in aiding in the mechani- cal breakdown of dietary plant material. Heavy met- al toxicity has been associated with feeding crushed shell derived from contaminated sources (oysters raised in polluted waters). The bird was maintained indoors and povitaminosis A leads to squamous metaplasia of had no exposure to sunlight or water for bathing. Horny beak material that is dry and flaky, as well as black discoloration of the epithelial surfaces causing obstruction of respiratory feathers are typical of malnutrition. Dyspnea may be change in diet and daily exposure to direct (unfiltered through caused by calcium or vitamin D deficiency if severe3 glass) sunlight. This can occur if a ciency causes the formation of ragged feathers, while tube is accidentally placed in the trachea when at- a deficiency in growing cockatiels has been associ- tempting crop feeding or if a bird (particularly a weak 46 ated with a lack of contour feathers. The association between diet and feather pigment Plumage Abnormalities has long been recognized by canary breeders. Caro- tene and xanthophyll pigments, which originate from Dark, horizontal lines (stress marks) on feathers plant material, are found in fat globules in the feath- have been associated with nutritional deficiencies ers and give rise to yellow, orange and red colors (see (particularly methionine) and indicate that a release Chapter 24). Birds lacking a dietary source of carote- of corticosteroid hormone occurred while the feather noids may develop muted feather or skin colors, was developing. Stress lines are common in neonates while dietary supplementation of carotenoids in that have had a disrupted feeding schedule or in birds with suitable genetic backgrounds will result in raptors that are molting while in a training period increased depth of color. Molting abnormalities, retained feather sheaths and dry flaking beaks have also been Prolonged feeding of bacon rind and bone marrow associated with overall nutritional deficiencies (Fig- has been associated with an oily feather and stool ure 31. Raptors Feather picking may be initiated by dry, flaky, fed laboratory rats and mice (reduced carotenes) may pruritic skin, which in turn can be caused by nutri- lose the yellow coloration of their cere, feet and legs tional deficiencies, particularly deficiencies of vita- that is characteristic in free-ranging birds. Porphyrins are less sensitive to dietary influ- possible cause of self mutilation (Figure 31. The black feathers in this Amazon parrot resolved with a change in diet Melanin occurs in granules in the skin and feathers (seeds to formulated diet) and correction of chronic active hepatitis. This pigment is derived from tyrosine in an enzy- occurs, melanin granules in the middle of the feather, matic reaction requiring copper. Consequently, defi- if present, would absorb all wave lengths of light, ciencies of tyrosine (or other related amino acids) or giving the visual effect of black (Figure 31. In deficiency, timing of the deficiency in relation to most cases, their occurrence depends on a scattering feather development and the initial color of the af- of light caused by the structure of the keratin in the fected feathers. While lysine deficiency in chickens, spongy layer of the feather rami rather than on the turkeys and quail produces achromatosis, there was presence of pigments. Essential amino acids that no loss of feather color in young cockatiels fed a occur in keratin include methionine, histidine, ly- lysine-deficient diet. However, choline and riboflavin sine, tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine and valine. It deficiencies produced feather changes in young is possible that amino acid deficiencies could alter the cockatiels that resembled achromatosis caused by structure of keratin and consequently alter feather lysine deficiency in poultry. A change in feather color from green to yellow associated with breakage) in feathers may be associ- is usually caused by a loss of structural blue color, ated with a hypovitaminosis B (Figure 31. While this color change is commonly Skin Changes seen in nutritionally deficient Psittaciformes, the exact nature of the deficiency has not been clarified, Plantar corns and pododermatitis have been associ- and it is possible that more than one amino acid could ated with biotin and vitamin A deficiencies, particu- be involved (see Color 24). If a formulated diet is not available, a diet can to black or grey to black in birds that are sick or be supplemented with multivitamins to compensate malnourished. Several kiwis in a with altered keratin structure in the spongy layer New Zealand zoo developed a scaly dermatitis over that prevents normal light scattering. The bird was on an all-seed diet frequently brittle and may break at the site of abnormal coloration. Changing the diet, increasing the exercise (out- door flight enclosure) and standard treatment for grade 4 bumble- ment that was routinely included in their diet was foot were effective in resolving the lesions. The clinical problem resolved when the mul- tivitamin supplement was again added to the diet. Over-supplementation may cause problems with excess vitamin, mineral, fat or protein Tibial dyschondroplasia is characterized by uncalci- consumption. A genetic predisposition along with electro- Demineralized, bent bones and pathologic fractures lyte imbalances involving sodium, potassium and may occur in birds with hypovitaminosis D and cal- chloride are thought to be involved in the develop- cium, phosphorus or magnesium deficiencies or im- ment of tibial dyschondroplasia. Leg paralysis has been associated with calcium, chloride or riboflavin deficiency.
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